2.5 million US Veterans were followed for 8 years to evaluate if exposure to air pollution – specifically fine particle air pollution contributed to an increase in kidney disease. It is well established that poor air quality specifically fine particles (<2.5 microns) increases heart and respiratory deaths. This is the size of particles that permeates thru the lungs into the blood system.
EPA and NASA data on air quality showed a linear association with an increased risk of kidney disease. When fine particles exposure exceeded what EPA considered safe, this study found a yearly 45,000 new cases and 2400 renal failures.
Researchers were careful that other conditions like Diabetes, and hypertension could not explain the development of kidney disease.
Remember the kidney filters 45 gallons of blood a day